Monday, April 30, 2012

Louisiana: Union, Justice, Confidence

The Louisiana Brown Pelican (Audobon)
Five times the flags of France and Spain have flown over Louisiana between 1682 (France) to 1803 (France again). 

In 1682 when the French explorer Sieur de La Salle claimed land in the New World for his king, Louis XIV, the flag he most likely carried with him is known as the Bourbon Banner, a white flag with golden fleur-de-lis upon it to represent the French Bourbon monarchy.

Many variations of this flag exist, some with only three fleur-de-lis and some with many fleur-de-lis. The simpler version with three fleur-de-lis, however, was more common as it was easier to make and, therefore, easier to fly.

France's Bourbon Banner c. 1682 under Louis XIV
It is this version of the Bourbon Banner that probably was the first French flag to fly over France's new territory in the New World, Lousiana.

In 1763, as part of the Treaty of Paris, the British Union Jack claimed its share of the vast territory named Louisiana. 

Five years later in 1768, King Carlos III of Spain must deal with rebellion in the form of French colonists concerned with the fairness of Spanish rule. In 1769, King Carlos has his territory and authority in Florida solidified under Spanish Governor Alejandro O'Reilly. 

The flag of Bourbon Spain, c. 1769
Alejandro O'Reilly (Alexander O'Reilly) was born in Dublin, Ireland in 1722. Being Irish and Catholic and, given England's history with Ireland at that time, it was common for Irish Catholic gentlemen to serve in foreign armies, hence O'Reilly's efforts on behalf of Carlos III. O'Reilly was the first official colonial administer for Spain after Spain acquired territory from France. For his work on Spain's behalf, he was made a Count. 

After French colonists in Florida rebelled against Spanish rule, O'Reilly "reformed" or reorganized local government, creating the Spanish parish system and, generally, making the French colonists more comfortable with Spanish government. This parish system, by the way, remained a part of local Florida government, persisting "as the primary county-level administrative unit under territorial and state governments" ( – even after Florida statehood. 
The 15 stars and 15 stripes of the Star-Spangled Banner

In 1803, the US buys the territory for $15 million from Napoleon (the Lousianna Purchase) and the 15 stars and 15 stripes of the flag that we will know as the Star-Spangled Banner becomes the first US flag to fly over Louisiana territory.

Louisiana becomes the 18th state in 1812 but secedes in 1861 and declares itself a sovereign nation. For two months is flies its own flag and then joins the Confederacy. Two Confederate flags fly over Louisiana during the Civil War, the Stars and Bars (1861-1863) and the Stainless Banner (1863-1865).

In 1902, the Brown Pelican becomes part of the Louisiana state seal although the bird has been part of Florida lore since colonists' early arrival. It is known for its parenting skills, so to speak: The Brown Pelican is a careful caretaker of its young, a trait that impressed the early Europeans. 

In the 1800s, the Brown Pelican began showing up on alternative versions of the state flag.  
Come 1912, but a dozen years into the new century, Louisiana makes the state bird, the Brown Pelican, the "star" of its new and official Louisiana state flag. The Brown Pelican, sitting atop its nest of young, flies over the state motto: Union, Justice and Confidence.

The Louisiana state flag
Happy statehood, Louisiana!

Let it fly!

partial list of sources:
Louisiana Secretary of State (
Southeastern Louisiana University (

Saturday, April 28, 2012

Maryland's State Flag: Historic Symbols of Unity

The state flag of Maryland is both distinctive as well as a symbolic history of the state's roots. It is based upon the heraldic designs of two English families, the Calverts and the Crosslands, the parents of the first Lord Baltimore.

The state flag of Maryland rated in the top 5 by NAVA for its design
The yellow and black bars represent the Calvert family, the first Lord Baltimore's paternal side. The red and white key pattern represents his maternal side, the Crossland family.

During colonial times and all the way up to and including the Civil War, the bumble bee colors of yellow and black generally represented Maryland. In fact, colonial descriptions of Maryland flags only describe flags using the yellow and black combination.

Though Maryland was a part of the Union, it was an eastern border state and it also had a large and active population that was sympathetic to the Confederate cause. During the Civil War, Confederate sympathizers began to show support of their cause by wearing "secessionist cockades", decorative rosettes common to the time – much like campaign buttons or bumper stickers are used today.

Lord Baltimore's coat-of-arms
Secessionist cockades, however, were made in a variety of color schemes from red and white; blue; or red, white and blue together. To make it even more complicated, Union cockades also existed in border states like Maryland and were in a similar color scheme: red, white and blue; or Union blue.

Confusion aside, in Maryland, a red and white secessionist color scheme apparently was adopted to show support of the southern cause:

"'Secession colors' appeared on everything from yarn stocking and cravats [men's neckties] to children's clothing. People displaying these red-and-white symbols of resistance to the Union and to Lincoln's policies were vigorously prosecuted by Federal authorities" (

Binding the nation's wounds ...
With these badges of protest in mind, the current flag of Maryland contains another layer of symbolism: that of unity rising out of disunity.

Made from a design of four quadrants of repeating design, the flag's colors not only date to the founding of the colony, but they also reflect the divisive times of the Civil War. The colors of both sides – secessionist red and white as well as traditional Maryland yellow and black – are used in equal parts in order to create the Maryland flag.

Reproduction cockade, c.1860
 First flown October 11, 1880 at the 150th parade marking Baltimore's founding (, the flag was also flown October 25, 1888 at the Gettysburg Battlefield in a ceremony dedicating memorial monuments to the Maryland regiments from the Army of the Potomac ( It also was flown by the Maryland National Guard's Fifth Regiment in 1889. This design became the official state flag of Maryland in 1904.

Maryland is one of the original 13 colonies. It is the 7th state to join the new nation. It adopted its first state constitution on November 8, 1776. Its statehood date is April 28, 1788, the date it signed the federal Constitution.

Finding ancestors who were slave
Maryland makes it easy to do an online search of the slave records of Prince George's County from 1808 -1869. To search the Freedom Records archive, follow this link

Flag of Maryland's 4th Regiment of US Colored Troops

Civil War regimental flag of the Maryland 4th US Colored Troops
Originally 6.5' high and 6'wide, the flag of Maryland's 4th Regiment of US Colored Troops is the only surviving regimental flag from the 25 regiments of African American soldiers. It is hand-painted and hand-stitched onto silk and was carried into battle (

Let it fly!
Maryland Dept. of State
Maryland Historical Society (
Maryland State Archives (